Capacity of 1500 liters / day
To process the oil into cooking oil
Mesin Minyak Goreng
Cooking Oil Processing Factory is a factory that produces cooking oil from raw materials CPO (Crude Palm Oil). CPO obtained from the pressing process and extraction millers still contain components that are undesirable free fatty acids (FFA = Free Fatty Acid), resins, gums, proteins, phosphatides, pigments color and odor. To be used as a food ingredient, the CPO should be processed again in Cooking Oil Processing Plant.
Broadly speaking, the process in Cooking Oil Processing Plant consists of the process of refining (purification) and fractionation (fractionation). The purification process consists of the degumming, neutralization, bleaching and deodorization processes. The oil obtained from the refining process consists of olein (cooking oil) and stearin, separated stearin fractionation process of olein. To clarify the edible oil processing flow is shown in the block diagram of the oil into Cooking Oil Processing as follows:
Degumming process aims to eliminate dissolved substances or substances that are colloidal, such as resins, gums, proteins and phosphatides in crude oil. In principle degumming process is the formation and floc-floc binding of dissolved substances and substances in the colloidal nature of crude oil, so that the floc-floc formed large enough to be separated from the oil. Degumming process most widely used today is the degumming process using acid. The effect of acid was agglomerate and precipitate substances such as proteins, phosphatides, gums and resins contained in crude oil.
The process of neutralization or the refining of crude oil deasidifikasi aims to remove free fatty acids contained in crude oil. Free fatty acids (FFA) can cause a rancid odor.
Neutralization process is most often used in the chemical industry is the process of neutralization with caustic soda, a saponification reaction between the principle of free fatty acids with caustic soda solution, the reaction penyabunannya as follows:
R ---- COOH R-COONa + NaOH + H2O
The optimum reaction conditions at atmospheric pressure is at a temperature of 70 ° C, where the reaction is an equilibrium reaction will shift to the right.
Caustic soda reacted usually exaggerated, about 5% of the stokiometris. Soap is formed is separated by precipitation. Caustic soda in addition to functioning as neutralizing the free fatty acids, also possess the color remover (decoulorization).
The process of bleaching (bleaching) is intended to reduce or eliminate the dyes (pigments) in the crude oil, either dissolved or dispersed.
Colors can be derived from crude oil innate color or color that arise in the process of processing the oil into cooking oil. Pigment commonly found in the crude oil is a carotenoid that is red or yellow, and phaephytin chlorophillida green.
Bleaching process used is bleaching the absorption process. This process uses an absorbent substance (absorbent) activity that has a high surface to absorb the dye contained in the crude oil. Besides absorbing dyes, absorbent can absorb colloidal substances that have properties such as gums and resins.
Absorbent of the most widely used in the bleaching process oils and fats are ground pemucat (bleaching Erath) and charcoal (carbon). Arang are very effective in the disappearances pigment red color, green and blue, but because the price are too expensive then in its use usually mixed with the ground pemucat by the number of who adjusted against this type crude oil which akan bleaching.
Deodorization process aims to reduce or eliminate taste and odor are not required in the oil for food. The compounds that cause taste and odor are usually unsaturated carbohydrate compounds, free fatty acids with low molecular weight compounds aldehydes and ketones as well as compounds that have other high volatility. Levels of the compounds mentioned above, although quite small was enough to give taste and odor, the levels are between 0.001 to 0.1%.
Deodorization process a lot is steam distillation method based on the difference in price volatility glycerides with compounds that cause taste and odor, which compounds are more volatile than in the glycerides. Superheated steam used is steam (dry steam), which are easily separated by condensation.
Deodorization process greatly influenced by pressure, temperature and time, all of which must be tailored to the type of crude oil is processed and used system processes. Operating temperature is maintained so as not to cause co terdistilasinya glycerides. Pressure cultivated as low as possible in order to protect the oil from oxidation by air and reduces the amount of steam consumption. In the batch system, the operating pressure of about 3 torr and temperature 240 oC.
Fractional crystallization process consists of a fraction of a solid at a given temperature and was followed by separation of the two factions that. The crystalline fraction is stearin and olein is the liquid that remains.
Some of the fractionation process that is often used is:
· Dry fractionation (fractionation without solvent).
· Wet fractionation (fractionation with solvents).
· The fractionation using detergent sodium lauryl sulphat.
Dry fractionation process based on oil cooling under controlled conditions without the addition of any chemicals. There are three operations involved in the seeding, crystallization and filtration. First oil is heated to 70 ° C to obtain a homogeneous liquid and then cooled with water cooling to a temperature of 40 ° C, then cooled till a temperature of 20 ° C and maintained until the crystallization process is considered complete.